California Council on Science and Technology (CCST) studies are viewed as valuable and credible
because of the organization's reputation for providing independent, objective, and nonpartisan
advice with high standards of scientific and technical quality. Checks and balances are applied at
every step in the study process to protect the integrity of the studies and to maintain public
confidence in them.
For over 25 years, CCST has been advising California on issues of science and technology by
leveraging exceptional talent and expertise.
CCST enlists the state's foremost scientists, engineers, health professionals, and other experts
to address the scientific and technical aspects of society's most pressing problems.
CCST studies are funded by state agencies, foundations and other private sponsors. CCST provides
independent advice; external sponsors have no control over the conduct of a study once the statement
of task and budget are finalized. Authors and the Steering Committee gather information from many
sources in public and private meetings but they carry out their deliberations in private in order to
avoid political, special interest, and sponsor influence.
Before the author and Steering Committee selection process begins, CCST staff and members work
with sponsors to determine the specific set of questions to be addressed by the study in a formal
"statement of task," as well as the duration and cost of the study. The statement of task defines and
bounds the scope of the study, and it serves as the basis for determining the expertise and the
balance of perspectives needed for the study authors, Steering Committee members, and peer
The statement of task, work plan, and budget must be approved by CCST's Project Director in
consultation with CCST leadership. This review sometimes results in changes to the proposed task and
work plan. On occasion, it results in turning down studies that CCST believes are inappropriately
framed or not within its purview.
Selection of appropriate authors and SC members, individually and collectively, is essential for
the success of a study. All authors and SC members serve as individual experts, not as
representatives of organizations or interest groups. Each expert is expected to contribute to the
project on the basis of his or her own expertise and good judgment. The lead author(s) serves as an
ex-officio, nonvoting member of the SC to ensure continued communication between the study authors
and the SC. CCST sends nominations of experts to the Oversight Committee (made up of two CCST Board
Members and an outside expert) for final approval after conducting a thorough balance and conflict
of interest (COI) evaluation including an in-person discussion. Any issues raised in that discussion
are investigated and addressed. Members of a SC are anonymous until this process is completed.
Careful steps are taken to convene SCs that meet the following criteria:
- An appropriate range of expertise for the task. The SC must include experts with the
specific expertise and experience needed to address the study's statement of task. A major strength
of CCST is the ability to bring together recognized experts from diverse disciplines and backgrounds
who might not otherwise collaborate. These diverse groups are encouraged to conceive new ways of
thinking about a problem.
- A balance of perspectives. Having the right expertise is not sufficient for success. It is
also essential to evaluate the overall composition of the SC in terms of different experiences and
perspectives. The goal is to ensure that the relevant points of view are, in CCST's judgment,
reasonably balanced so that the SC can carry out its charge objectively and credibly.
- Screened for conflicts of interest. All provisional SC members are screened in writing
and in a confidential group discussion about possible conflicts of interest. For this purpose, a
"conflict of interest" means any financial or other interest which conflicts with the service of the
individual because it could significantly impair the individual's objectivity or could create an
unfair competitive advantage for any person or organization. The term "conflict of interest" means
something more than individual bias. There must be an interest, ordinarily financial, that could be
directly affected by the work of the SC. Except for those rare situations in which CCST determines
that a conflict of interest is unavoidable and promptly and publicly discloses the conflict of
interest, no individual can be appointed to serve (or continue to serve) on a SC used in the
development of studies if the individual has a conflict of interest that is relevant to the functions
to be performed.
- Point of View is different from Conflict of Interest. A point of view or bias is
not necessarily a conflict of interest. SC members are expected to have points of view, and CCST
attempts to balance these points of view in a way deemed appropriate for the task. SC members are
asked to consider respectfully the viewpoints of other members, to reflect their own views rather
than be a representative of any organization, and to base their scientific findings and conclusions on
the evidence. Each SC member has the right to issue a dissenting opinion to the study if he or she
disagrees with the consensus of the other members.
- Other considerations.
Membership in CCST and previous involvement in CCST studies are taken into account in SC selection. The inclusion of women, minorities, and young professionals are additional considerations.
Specific steps in the SC selection and approval process are as follows: CCST staff solicit an
extensive number of suggestions for potential SC members from a wide range of sources, then
recommend a slate of nominees. Nominees are reviewed and approved at several levels within CCST. A
provisional slate is then approved by the Oversight Committee. Prior to approval, the provisional SC
members complete background information and conflict-of-interest disclosure forms. The SC balance and
conflict-of-interest discussion is held at the first SC meeting. Any conflicts of interest or issues of
SC balance and expertise are investigated; changes to the SC are proposed and finalized. The
Oversight Committee formally approves the SC. SC members continue to be screened for conflict of
interest throughout the life of the committee.
Study committees typically gather information through:
- submission of
information by outside parties;
- reviews of the scientific literature; and
- investigations by
the committee members and staff.
In all cases, efforts are made to solicit input from individuals who have been directly involved in,
or who have special knowledge of, the problem under consideration.
The authors shall draft the study and the SC shall draft findings and recommendations. The SC
deliberates in meetings closed to the public in order to develop draft findings and recommendations
free from outside influences. All analyses and drafts of the study remain confidential.
As a final check on the quality and objectivity of the study, all CCST reports, whether products
of studies, summaries of workshop proceedings, or other documents, must undergo a rigorous,
independent external peer review by experts whose comments are provided anonymously to the authors
and SC members. CCST recruits independent experts with a range of views and perspectives to review
and comment on the draft report prepared by the authors and the SC.
The review process is structured to ensure that each report addresses its approved study charge,
that the findings are supported by the scientific evidence and arguments presented, that the
exposition and organization are effective, and that the report is impartial and objective.
The authors and the SC must respond to, but need not agree with, reviewer comments in a detailed
"response to review" that is examined by one or more independent "report monitor(s)" responsible for
ensuring that the report review criteria have been satisfied. After all SC members and appropriate
CCST officials have signed off on the final report, it is transmitted to the sponsor of the study and
the sponsor can release it to the public. Sponsors are not given an opportunity to suggest changes
in reports. All reviewer comments and SC deliberations remain confidential. The names and
affiliations of the report reviewers are made public when the report is released.
(Click here for additional details on CCST's peer review process.)